Energy efficiency in buildings is achieved through a multi – pronged approach involving adoption of architectural principles responsive to the climate of the particular location by combining efficient insulation with robust structural design. Implementation of energy-efficiency in building systems is almost entirely dependent on effective Thermal Insulation of the building envelope.
India is quite a challenge in this sense since there are as many as six major climate zones:
Cold and sunny
Cold and cloudy
Warm and humid
Hot and dry
Translation of optimum architectural design in the Indian context therefore poses a major challenge in proper choice and deployment of Insulation, Vapour retarder, Weather protection and aesthetic finishing.
Design of energy efficient envelope is a matter of deep understanding of Building Physics and thorough knowledge of Materials Sciences. Eriman Insulations have led from the front in these branches of science.
Thermal insulation in buildings plays an important part in achieving thermal comfort for
its occupants. Insulation reduces unwanted heat loss or gain and can decrease the energy demands of heating and cooling systems.
In addition to a wide choice of Thermal envelopes, Eriman Insulations provide complete solutions for scientific thermal Insulation of HVAC system elements like chilled water Refrigerant lines, supply and Return air ducting and Air Handling units a hot water plumbing to provide comprehensive energy efficiency to the built environment.
We have joined major players in the Building Sector in India,This aims to specify norms for insulation resistance requirements for buildings servicing various specific functions in various climate zones.
Whether in Industry, commerce or in residential environment, thermal comfort has become a
vital necessity. Employee productivity is directly linked to his workplace environment. Enclosures which operate without any cooling systems are totally dependant on Insulation coupled with adequate ventilation for achieving thermal comfort.
In other parts of the year, insulation duty would also include extreme winter ambient conditions and the concurrent need for achieving thermal comfort in the building interior by heating.
Under winter conditions, a major hazard is the risk of condensation within the system itself or on the inner surfaces of un-insulated or insufficiently insulated building elements. Detailing the Insulation system design would involve proper placement of Vapour Retarder and very careful attention to potential heat bridges and Cold spots.
Major contributors to energy balance in buildings are the roofs. Roofs are composed of Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC), sheets of fiber Reinforced Cement sheets or Plain / Coated Metal profiles.
Apart from addition of insulation value to such elements, it is necessary to add thermal capacity as well – to be able to dampen the effect of cyclical temperature variations so very common over a typical Indian summer day.
Thermal insulation, by retarding heat flow, delivers the following benefits to a building enclosure:
Helps maintain temperatures as perceived by the occupant to be within his limits of tolerance.
Reduces over-all cost of heating or cooling by cutting down energy consumption.
Reduces capacity of capital equipment to be installed for HVAC duty by cutting heat loss or heat gain to be compensated.
Keeps the temperature of the inner surfaces of buildings within acceptable limits to reduce possibility of their acting as “Radiators” causing added thermal discomfort in summer and possible condensation in winter.
Provides fire protection to metal structures.
Reduces break-in of external noises and absorbs internally generated Noise.
Thermal insulation is specified and applied to fulfill any one or combination of the above functions.
Materials- Importance of physical & chemical properties
As can be appreciated, the most important single requirement is that the materials deployed in the insulation system should remain in place and continue performance of their assigned role over the expected life of the building.
This stipulation would require that each material should be unaffected by exposure to the environmental media for the entire life span of a building.
Eriman insulations offers a wide range of materials, each of them developed, tested and validated to deliver the best value to the end user.
The bonded mineral wool combines excellent insulation value with total fire safety. Its fibrous matrix affords excellent acoustical and Noise control properties as well.
It is offered in all possible forms – Slabs, flexible Mattress, performed Pipe Section or sprayable formulations.
ERIMAN PANEL Systems provide the ultimate value in building insulation. They provide a one step solution towards excellent Insulation Value, Extraordinary Structural Strength and the highest levels of aesthetic finish to a building.
Exciting opportunities are offered to Architects and designers to extract maximum benefit to the end user in applications like commercial complexes, large Industrial buildings and public buildings like Airports, stadia and convention centers.
Eriman Insulations manufactures each of the above materials in a network of plants, located in different parts of India to service customer requirements promptly and economically. Each of the plants is equipped with relevant laboratory and testing facilities to assure quality at each step.
Having met and exceeded specified requirements of some of the most demanding users and consultants, our products enjoy the benefit of acceptance by every leading specifier in the field.
Acoustics is the science of study of SOUND – its generation, propagation and finally its receipt by a listener. Unwanted sound is defined as NOISE. Noise is a result of activities such as loud talking, operation of machinery or vehicles in the neighborhood. In today`s world, noise has assumed an important area of study since it affects our way of life, our health and our psychology.
In architectural acoustics, Eriman Insulations has handled Noise control projects and in size and complexity ranging from Aero Engine Test Beds, Automotive Engine and vehicles test cells, Enclosures for very large steam Turbines and for very noisy Gas Turbine. In these assignments, acoustical enclosures housing very noisy mechanical equipment have been treated by us to ensure that the operational areas in the immediate neighborhood experience acceptable levels of disturbance either as prescribed by codes or in line with what is optimum for the activity on the quieter side.
Control of noise, usually termed as “Noise Reduction” is the subject covered by Acoustical Engineering.
Design of interiors, however falls within the area of expertise covered by the Architect and the Interior Designer. There is need for close interaction between the two disciplines to evolve technically correct & functionally sound interiors for the modern man.
Acoustical performance of enclosed spaces such as Office areas is important in that we expect the persons occupying these areas to perform efficiently for fairly long periods. High level of importance is given to ease of voice communication -whether between individuals in the same space or over of telephones, inter- communication equipment or others.
Protecting communities from excessive outside noise arising from traffic on highways and busy city traffic requires well rounded solutions covered by an interactive process of various between engineering disciplines.
General principles of control of noise produced internally
In this section, we deal with the aspects of noises produced within the space as contrasted to those from the adjoining areas.
Any mechanical equipment or a loud talker is a highly localised source of noise. When many such sources combine together, the overall Noise Level builds up to a high “ambient”.
When a person needs to communicate in this ambient, he would raise his voice instinctively. This gives rise to further increase in the ambient level and so on.
In public spaces, like airports, precise delivery of message through the P A system is possible only if the interior is treated for optimum acoustical absorption.
This is the main reason why it s very important to avoid a scenario which would promote build-up of noise level. The major culprit in building up the level is the reflectivity of the surrounding surfaces like the ceiling, walls and the floor.
In addition, if furniture is constructed of hard panels (as in most cases), the situation is further aggravated. In Industry, Zoning of noisy equipment and providing enclosures around them would prevent their contributing to the general noise buildup in a larger production or process hall. This is an aspect to be kept in mind during layout of the premises.
Provision of acoustically absorptive surfaces, particularly in the ceilings and walls is the first step in proper interior design.
In any acoustical work providing acoustical absorption economically is a necessary function.
Acoustics of Ventilation & Air-Conditioning system
When we talk about mechanical equipment which we deploy for tasks such as ventilation or air handling, any sound produced by them could be termed as “unwanted” and hence, requiring reduction – if not total elimination. This subject is quite diverse and it is not possible to cover all aspects briefly.
However, an attempt is made here to cover the basics and open out the minds of the designers to the significant parameters that influence acoustical performance of mechanical equipment like ventilation or air-conditioning installations.
As can be readily seen, this function involves mechanical machinery, some featuring both rotating and reciprocating movements, while others handle large volumes of air through narrow passages such as ducts and deliver through restricted areas of cross sections such as grilles to produce aerodynamic noise.
All these elements are potential areas of Noise Generation. Acoustical treatment steps are totally dependent on study of these specific subjects scientifically.
A significant area concerns duct silencing where free flow of air is to be permitted while trapping noise at source. It would be important to know where & why – silencers are to be deployed.
Duct silencers are frequently applied in air-conditioning systems at the intake or discharge of system fans to reduce or eliminate fan noise on the return and supply sides.
Silencers may also be required after branch takeoffs or elbows, after pressure reducing valves, and after mixing boxes. In short, silencers allow movement or air as the Air-conditioning Engineer may want but, act as traps to cut off unwanted noise transmission through duct passages..
Performance of requirement of silencing equipment can be calculated, after an acoustic design criterion has been set, for each noise generator in an Air Conditioning system. While designing dedicated silencers to perform noise attenuation in ducts, what we look for are:
High acoustical efficiency vis-a-vis space occupied – All dimensions are important in building design and there is high premium on compactness.
High acoustical efficiency with least resistance to flow i.e. with least pressure drop encountered in passage. If the silencer offers too high a resistance, the air supply fans may have to be oversized with higher Power consumption.
Sound rugged construction ensuring long service life without any deterioration/corrosion.
This is important since most silencers are not accessible once the work is completed.
In addition, silencers should be so constructed as to prevent dislodgment of particles of acoustical medium itself during use.
Often, it is mistakenly believed that an ad-hoc provision made in the duct system is more than adequate to handle the acoustical duty. Review has shown that such an approach has always resulted in a very expensive post treatment. Step-by-step selection procedures are to be adopted to ensure acoustical and aerodynamic adequacy.
It is to be realised that it is important to remove annoyances that may be caused by noise
whether by the activities within the space or due to the provision of Air-conditioning and Ventilation Systems which are essentially provided for improving comfort conditions to the occupants of an enclosure and to improve Productivity. At times, the equipment deployed for the purpose of providing comfort to one set of persons may, in effect cause disturbance to the neighboring persons. Conscious design of equipment and careful design of noise control provisions would render the installations acceptable for the entire community.
Laying of power cables direct in the ground Before laying is commenced, the route must be selected considering the local conditions.
To ensure a satisfactory cable life, it is necessary to examine the soil for corrosive substances.
If any of these harmful substances is found the cables must be protected with a special anti-corrosion compound.
The cables are laid in trenches of suitable depth, especially excavated to this purpose along the selected route in which a sand layer of 10cm is applied. The best method of laying the cable depends on the type of cable and working conditions.
• One simple method is to lay the cable straight from a cable truck running along the side of the trench. This method calls for a suitable way for the truck to run and no obstacles to prevent the cable from being lowered direct.
• Another way is to carry the cable. The distance between each man and the next is 3-10 metres, depending on the weight of the cable. The cable must not be shouldered but carried by hand. To limit the labour required the drum should be placed at the most suitable point along the trench line.
Rollers are a great help in drawing heavy cables. When rollers are used, the cable can be drawn out manually or with a winch.
If the cable is pulled out solely by its end, guide rollers should be placed at the corners to ensure that the cable is not bent at less than the minimum radius. In all these methods, the drum should be placed so that the cable is unreeled from the top, i.e. the cable is unreeled in the opposite direction to that shown by the arrow on the drum flange. After laying, the cables are covered with sand of 10cm depth followed by bricks in order to protect the cables in case of future excavation works and the duct is filled completely by riddled soil. When several cables are laid side by side, they should be separated either by brick or by a special cable cover. The covers must fit the cable closely, as air pockets between the cable and the cover would considerably reduce the safe current-carrying capacity.
Laying of Power cables in Underground ducts The system of installing underground ducts into which cables may be pulled is commended especially in congested areas where excavation work is difficult to be carried out. Old cables can be removed and new cables can be installed without further excavation. It must be considered that, when new power cables are pulled into vacant duct the current rating of the cables in the duct will be affected.
Current ratings for cables in underground ducts are lower than those of cables laid direct in the ground.